Dobby: This is an ‘extra-warp’ technique where separate set of warp threads are used to create simple and small border designs especially on saris using a separate equipment mounted on the loom called a dobby. The design is plotted on to the dobby and is made to lift the ‘extra-warp’ threads. As the weaver weaves, the dobby shafts flip to lift the warp threads according to the pattern and it appears on the fabric.
Jamdani Weaving of East Godavari: Jamdani is an ‘extra-weft’ technique where each individual motif is created by interlacing independent ‘extra’ or separate weft threads into the warp apart from the main weft. The back side of a jamdani textile will not have any 'floating threads' between motifs. This is also a time-consuming process since each motif is created independently and individually.
Jamdani Weaving of Srikakulam: Jamdani is an ‘extra-weft’ technique where each individual motif is created by interlacing independent ‘extra’ or separate weft threads into the warp apart from the main weft. The back side of a jamdani textile will not have any 'floating threads' between motifs. This is also a time-consuming process since each motif is created independently and individually.
Ballakammi: 'Ballakammi' is an ‘extra-weft’ technique used traditionally for creating simple patterns in the palla. The entire warp is tied in sets of 3 or 4 and operated independently using a separate set of pedals where the ballakammi pattern is desired. When an “extra-weft” or “pattern-weft” is inserted through this kind of warp lift, it produces a 'chequered' effect with numerous patterns and possibilities.
Kuppadam of Srikakulam: The Kuppadam is an ‘interlocking’ technique used to create ‘contrast color temple borders’. It is done by using 3 different wefts – one for the body and one each for the two borders – each interlocking with the other to create distinct body and border colors in the same product at the same time. This is more time-consuming and requires 2 weavers on the loom at the same time.
Kuppadam of East Godavari: The Kuppadam is an “interlocking” technique used to create ‘contrast color borders’. This is achieved by a unique setting of the loom by which the border weft interlocks only with the border warp while the main weft shuttles across the main warp carrying the body color. This technique does not permit ‘temple’ borders, but can be operated by a single weaver.
Plains, Checks and Stripes:
The most common weave is the plain weave where the warp and weft yarns interlace alternately. When a contrast color or a different yarn is introduced in regular intervals in the warp, a stripe is formed. When introduced in both warp and weft, a check is formed. So, the shuttles of different colors are to be changed as the weft is woven. The more intricate and colorful the check, the more often it has to be changed.
Butas are created using an 'extra-weft' - an extra yarn which is used to weave simple motifs, apart from the main weft. Each buta is created independently with separate threads by lifting the warp in a particular predetermined sequence.